Tuesday, October 25, 2011

Sioux Indian Tribes, Language and Geographic Distribution


Derivation: A corruption of the Algonkin word “nadowe-ssi-wag
,” “the snake-like ones,” “the enemies” (Trumbull).
Under the family Gallatin makes four subdivisions, viz, the Winnebagos, the Sioux proper and the Assiniboins, the Minnetare group, and the Osages and southern kindred tribes. Gallatin speaks of the distribution of the family as follows: The Winnebagoes have their principal seats on the Fox River of Lake Michigan and towards the heads of the Rock River of the Mississippi; of the Dahcotas proper, the Mendewahkantoan or “Gens du Lac” lived east of the Mississippi from Prairie du Chien north to Spirit Lake. The three others, Wahkpatoan, Wahkpakotoan and Sisitoans inhabit the country between the Mississippi and the St. Peters, and that on the southern tributaries of this river and on the headwaters of the Red River of Lake Winnipek. The three western tribes, the Yanktons, the Yanktoanans and the Tetons wander between the Mississippi and the Missouri, extending southerly to 43° of north latitude and some distance west of the Missouri, between 43° and 47° of latitude. 112The “Shyennes” are included in the family but are marked as doubtfully belonging here.

Owing to the fact that “Sioux” is a word of reproach and means snake or enemy, the term has been discarded by many later writers as a family designation, and “Dakota,” which signifies friend or ally, has been employed in its stead. The two words are, however, by no means properly synonymous. The term “Sioux” was used by Gallatin in a comprehensive or family sense and was applied to all the tribes collectively known to him to speak kindred dialects of a widespread language. It is in this sense only, as applied to the linguistic family, that the term is here employed. The term “Dahcota” (Dakota) was correctly applied by Gallatin to the Dakota tribes proper as distinguished from the other members of the linguistic family who are not Dakotas in a tribal sense. The use of the term with this signification should be perpetuated.
It is only recently that a definite decision has been reached respecting the relationship of the Catawba and Woccon, the latter an extinct tribe known to have been linguistically related to the Catawba. Gallatin thought that he was able to discern some affinities of the Catawban language with “Muskhogee and even with Choctaw,” though these were not sufficient to induce him to class them together. Mr. Gatschet was the first to call attention to the presence in the Catawba language of a considerable number of words having a Siouan affinity.
Recently Mr. Dorsey has made a critical examination of all the Catawba linguistic material available, which has been materially increased by the labors of Mr. Gatschet, and the result seems to justify its inclusion as one of the dialects of the widespread Siouan family.

The pristine territory of this family was mainly in one body, the only exceptions being the habitats of the Biloxi, the Tutelo, the Catawba and Woccon.
Contrary to the popular opinion of the present day, the general trend of Siouan migration has been westward. In comparatively late prehistoric times, probably most of the Siouan tribes dwelt east of the Mississippi River.
The main Siouan territory extended from about 53° north in the Hudson Bay Company Territory, to about 33°, including a considerable part of the watershed of the Missouri River and that of the Upper Mississippi. It was bounded on the northwest, north, northeast, and for some distance on the east by Algonquian territory. South of 45° north the line ran eastward to Lake Michigan, as the Green Bay region belonged to the Winnebago.86
113It extended westward from Lake Michigan through Illinois, crossing the Mississippi River at Prairie du Chien. At this point began the Algonquian territory (Sac, etc.) on the west side of the Mississippi, extending southward to the Missouri, and crossing that river it returned to the Mississippi at St. Louis. The Siouan tribes claimed all of the present States of Iowa and Missouri, except the parts occupied by Algonquian tribes. The dividing line between the two for a short distance below St. Louis was the Mississippi River. The line then ran west of Dunklin, New Madrid, and Pemiscot Counties, in Missouri, and Mississippi County and those parts of Craighead and Poinsett Counties, Arkansas, lying east of the St. Francis River. Once more the Mississippi became the eastern boundary, but in this case separating the Siouan from the Muskhogean territory. The Quapaw or Akansa were the most southerly tribe in the main Siouan territory. In 167387 they were east of the Mississippi. Joutel (1687) located two of their villages on the Arkansas and two on the Mississippi one of the latter being on the east bank, in our present State of Mississippi, and the other being on the opposite side, in Arkansas. Shea says88 that the Kaskaskias were found by De Soto in 1540 in latitude 36°, and that the Quapaw were higher up the Mississippi. But we know that the southeast corner of Missouri and the northeast corner of Arkansas, east of the St. Francis River, belonged to Algonquian tribes. A study of the map of Arkansas shows reason for believing that there may have been a slight overlapping of habitats, or a sort of debatable ground. At any rate it seems advisable to compromise, and assign the Quapaw and Osage (Siouan tribes) all of Arkansas up to about 36° north.

Osage Indian in Ceremonial Dress

On the southwest of the Siouan family was the Southern Caddoan group, the boundary extending from the west side of the Mississippi River in Louisiana, nearly opposite Vicksburg, Mississippi, and running northwestwardly to the bend of Red River between Arkansas and Louisiana; thence northwest along the divide between the watersheds of the Arkansas and Red Rivers. In the northwest corner of Indian Territory the Osages came in contact with the Comanche (Shoshonean), and near the western boundary of Kansas the Kiowa, Cheyenne, and Arapaho (the two latter being recent Algonquian intruders?) barred the westward march of the Kansa or Kaw.

Kansa Sioux

The Pawnee group of the Caddoan family in western Nebraska and northwestern Kansas separated the Ponka and Dakota on the north from the Kansa on the south, and the Omaha and other Siouan tribes on the east from Kiowa and other tribes on the west. The Omaha and cognate peoples occupied in Nebraska the lower part of the Platte River, most of the Elkhorn Valley, and the Ponka claimed the region watered by the Niobrara in northern Nebraska.

Omaha Sioux

114There seems to be sufficient evidence for assigning to the Crows (Siouan) the northwest corner of Nebraska (i.e., that part north of the Kiowan and Caddoan habitats) and the southwest part of South Dakota (not claimed by Cheyenne89), as well as the northern part of Wyoming and the southern part of Montana, where they met the Shoshonean stock.90
The Biloxi habitat in 1699 was on the Pascogoula river,91 in the southeast corner of the present State of Mississippi. The Biloxi subsequently removed to Louisiana, where a few survivors were found by Mr. Gatschet in 1886.
The Tutelo habitat in 1671 was in Brunswick County, southern Virginia, and it probably included Lunenburgh and Mecklenburg Counties.92 The Earl of Bellomont (1699) says93that the Shateras were “supposed to be the Toteros, on Big Sandy River, Virginia,” and Pownall, in his map of North America (1776), gives the Totteroy (i.e., Big Sandy) River. Subsequently to 1671 the Tutelo left Virginia and moved to North Carolina.94 They returned to Virginia (with the Sapona), joined the Nottaway and Meherrin, whom they and the Tuscarora followed into Pennsylvania in the last century; thence they went to New York, where they joined the Six Nations, with whom they removed to Grand River Reservation, Ontario, Canada, after the Revolutionary war. The last full-blood Tutelo died in 1870. For the important discovery of the Siouan affinity of the Tutelo language we are indebted to Mr. Hale.
The Catawba lived on the river of the same name on the northern boundary of South Carolina. Originally they were a powerful tribe, the leading people of South Carolina, and probably occupied a large part of the Carolinas. The Woccon were widely separated from kinsmen living in North Carolina in the fork of the Cotentnea and Neuse Rivers.
The Wateree, living just below the Catawba, were very probably of the same linguistic connection.
I. Dakota.
(A) Santee: include Mde´-wa-kan-ton-wan (Spirit Lake village, Santee Reservation, Nebraska), and Wa-qpe´-ku-te (Leaf Shooters); some on Fort Peck Reservation, Montana.
(B) Sisseton (Si-si´-ton-wan), on Sisseton Reservation, South Dakota, and part on Devil’s Lake Reservation, North Dakota.
(C) Wahpeton (Wa-qpe´-ton-wan, Wa-hpe-ton-wan); Leaf village. Some on Sisseton Reservation; most on Devil’s Lake Reservation.
(D) Yankton (I-hañk´-ton-wan), at Yankton Reservation, South Dakota.
(E) Yanktonnais (I-hañk´-ton-wan´-na); divided into Upper and Lower. Of the Upper Yanktonnais, there are some of the Cut-head band (Pa´-ba-ksa gens) on Devil’s Lake Reservation. Upper Yanktonnais, most are on Standing Rock Reservation, North Dakota; Lower Yanktonnais, most are on Crow Creek Reservation, South Dakota, some are on Standing Rock Reservation, and some on Fort Peck Reservation, Montana.
(F) Teton (Ti-ton-wan); some on Fort Peck Reservation, Montana.
(a) Brulé (Si-tcan´-xu); some are on Standing Rock Reservation. Most of the Upper Brulé (Highland Sitcanxu) are on Rosebud Reservation, South Dakota. Most of the Lower Brulé (Lowland Sitcanxu) are on Lower Brulé Reservation, South Dakota.
(b) Sans Arcs (I-ta´-zip-tco´, Without Bows). Most are on Cheyenne Reservation. South Dakota; some on Standing Rock Reservation.
(c) Blackfeet (Si-ha´sa´-pa). Most are on Cheyenne Reservation; some on Standing Rock Reservation.
(d) Minneconjou (Mi´-ni-ko´-o-ju). Most are on Cheyenne Reservation, some are on Rosebud Reservation, and some on Standing Rock Reservation.
(e) Two Kettles (O-o´-he-non´-pa, Two Boilings), on Cheyenne Reservation.
(f) Ogalalla (O-gla´-la). Most on Pine Ridge Reservation, South Dakota; some on Standing Rock Reservation. Wa-ża-ża (Wa-ja-ja, Wa-zha-zha), a gens of the Oglala (Pine Ridge Reservation); Loafers (Wa-glu-xe, In-breeders), a gens of the Oglala; most on Pine Ridge Reservation; some on Rosebud Reservation.
(g) Uncpapa (1862-’63), Uncapapa (1880-’81), (Huñ´-kpa-pa), on Standing Rock Reservation.
II. Assinaboin (Hohe, Dakota name); most in British North America; some on Fort Peck Reservation, Montana.
III. Omaha (U-man´-han), on Omaha Reservation, Nebraska.
IV. Ponca (formerly Ponka on maps; Ponka); 605 on Ponca Reservation, Indian Territory; 217 at Santee Agency, Nebrask
V. Kaw ([K]an´-ze; the Kansa Indians); on the Kansas Reservation. Indian Territory.
VI. Osage; Big Osage (Pa-he´-tsi, Those on a Mountain); Little Osage (Those at the foot of the Mountain); Arkansas Band (
[S]an-ʇsu-ʞ¢in, Dwellers in a Highland Grove), Osage Reservation, Indian Territory.
VII. Quapaw (
U-ʞa´-qpa; Kwapa). A few are on the Quapaw Reserve, but about 200 are on the Osage Reserve, Oklahoma. (They are the Arkansa of early times.)
VIII. Iowa, on Great Nemaha Reserve, Kansas and Nebraska, and 86 on Sac and Fox Reserve, Indian Territory.
IX. Otoe (Wa-to´-qta-ta), on Otoe Reserve, Indian Territory.
X. Missouri or Missouria (Ni--t’a-tci), on Otoe Reserve.
XI. Winnebago (Ho-tcañ´-ga-ra); most in Nebraska, on their reserve: some are in Wisconsin; some in Michigan, according to Dr. Reynolds.
XII. Mandan, on Fort Berthold Reserve, North Dakota.
XIII. Gros Ventres (a misleading name; synMinnetaree; Hi-da´-tsa); on the same reserve.
XIV. Crow (Absáruqe, Aubsároke, etc.), Crow Reserve, Montana.
XV. Tutelo (Ye-san´); among the Six Nations, Grand River Reserve, Province of Ontario, Canada.
XVI. Biloxi (Ta´-neks ha´-ya), part on the Red River, at Avoyelles, Louisiana; part in Indian Territory, among the Choctaw and Caddo.
XVII. Catawba.
XVIII. Woccon.
Population.—The present number of the Siouan family is about 43,400, of whom about 2,204 are in British North America, the rest being in the United States. Below is given the population of the tribes officially recognized, compiled chiefly from the Canadian Indian Report for 1888, the United States Indian Commissioner’s Report for 1889, and the United States Census Bulletin for 1890:
Mdewakantonwan and Wahpekute (Santee) on Santee Reserve, Nebraska
At Flandreau, Dakota292
Santee at Devil’s Lake Agency54
Sisseton and Wahpeton on Sisseton Reserve, South Dakota
Sisseton, Wahpeton, and Cuthead (Yanktonnais) at Devil’s Lake Reservation
On Yankton Reservation, South Dakota1,725
At Devil’s Lake Agency123
On Fort Peck Reservation, Montana1,121
A few on Crow Creek Reservation, South Dakota
A few on Lower Brulé Reservation, South Dakota
Upper Yanktonnais on Standing Rock Reservation
Lower Yanktonnais on Crow Creek Reservation
At Standing Rock Agency1,739
Brulé, Upper Brulé on Rosebud Reservation
On Devil’s Lake Reservation2
Lower Brulé at Crow Creek and Lower Brulé Agency
Minneconjou (mostly) and Two Kettle, on Cheyenne River Reserve
Blackfeet on Standing Rock Reservation545
Two Kettle on Rosebud Reservation315
Oglala on Pine Ridge Reservation4,552
Wajaja (Oglala gens) on Rosebud Reservation
Wagluxe (Oglala gens) on Rosebud Reservation
Uncapapa, on Standing Rock Reservation571
Dakota at Carlisle, Lawrence, and Hampton schools
Dakota in British North America (tribes not stated):
On Bird Tail Sioux Reserve, Birtle Agency, Northwest Territory
On Oak River Sioux Reserve, Birtle Agency
On Oak Lake Sioux Reserve, Birtle Agency
On Turtle Mountain Sioux Reserve, Birtle Agency
On Standing Buffalo Reserve, under Northwest Territory
Muscowpetung’s Agency:
White Cap Dakota (Moose Woods Reservation)
American Sioux (no reserve)95
On Fort Belknap Reservation, Montana952
On Fort Peck Reservation, Montana719
At Devil’s Lake Agency2
The following are in British North America:
Pheasant Rump’s band, at Moose Mountain (of whom 6 at Missouri and 4 at Turtle Mountain)
Ocean Man’s band, at Moose Mountain (of whom 4 at Missouri)
The-man-who-took-the-coat’s band, at Indian Head (of whom 5 are at Milk River)
Bear’s Head band, Battleford Agency227
Chee-pooste-quahn band, at Wolf Creek, Peace Hills Agency
Bear’s Paw band, at Morleyville236
Chiniquy band, Reserve, at Sarcee Agency
Jacob’s band227
Omaha and Winnebago Agency, Nebraska1,158
At Carlisle School, Pennsylvania19
At Hampton School, Virginia10
At Lawrence School, Kansas10
In Nebraska (under the Santee agent)217
In Indian Territory (under the Ponka agent)
At Carlisle, Pennsylvania1
At Lawrence, Kansas24
At Osage Agency, Indian Territory1,509
At Carlisle, Pennsylvania7
At Lawrence, Kansas65
Kansa or Kaw:
At Osage Agency, Indian Territory198
At Carlisle, Pennsylvania1
At Lawrence, Kansas15
On Quapaw Reserve, Indian Territory154
On Osage Reserve, Indian Territory71
At Carlisle, Pennsylvania3
At Lawrence, Kansas4
On Great Nemaha Reservation, Kansas165
On Sac and Fox Reservation, Oklahoma102
At Carlisle, Pennsylvania1
At Lawrence, Kansas5
Oto and Missouri, in Indian Territory358
In Nebraska1,215
In Wisconsin (1889)930
At Carlisle, Pennsylvania27
At Lawrence, Kansas2
At Hampton, Virginia10
On Fort Berthold Reservation, North Dakota
At Hampton, Virginia1
Hidatsa, on Fort Berthold Reservation, North Dakota
Crow, on Crow Reservation, Montana2,287
Tutelo, about a dozen mixed bloods on Grand River Reserve, Ontario, Canada, and a few more near Montreal (?), say, about20
In Louisiana, about25
At Atoka, Indian Territory1
In York County, South Carolina, about80
Scattered through North Carolina, about